Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have tremendous potential in disaster risk reduction due to their ability to facilitate the rapid flow of information instantly and continuously, in real-time. The use of ICTs in all phases of the disaster risk management cycle presents substantial opportunities to reduce disaster risks, enhance resilience, and facilitate inclusive preparedness and response.
Disaster Risk Reduction
This report provides a brief introduction to the national framework India has developed for Disaster Risk Reduction, and how ICT is being implemented within this policy. The report summarizes the different ICT resources the Government of India is utilizing to reduce disaster risk and manage disasters that do occur
During the “great east Japan earthquake” on March 11, 2011, a lot of ICT resources were completely or partially damaged due to the tremor and the resultant tsunami. As a consequence, the demand for ICT services explosively increased, mainly because the people of the affected areas were trying to communicate with the outside world that led to a phenomenal rise in the network traffic. This gave rise to a serious traffic congestion, and the emergency ICT networks and services could not deal with this issue sufficiently.
This paper describes the ICT-based work management to enhance collaborative works and interactive communication, and to grasp significant information in order to support unmanned construction for post-disaster restoration. Firstly, this paper reports the unmanned constructions that have been and are being done in the Unzen restoration project.
The use of ICTs has been highly advocated for addressing the obstacles and improving decision-making in the event of a disaster. A number of ICT support systems and frameworks have evolved over time to support the highly time and collaboration intensive task of emergency and disaster management. This paper is based on a survey of the existing systems, ongoing research projects, supporting systems and concepts. These systems have been classified based on their use in the four stages of Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM).
Precursor Process and Triggering Mechanism of Rapid Landslides under Extreme Weather Conditions, and an Attempt of ICT-Based Participatory Joint Mapping of Past Landslides with Experts in Developing Countries
This paper introduces the recent extreme rainfall-induced landslide disasters and results of ring shear tests showing the triggering mechanism of rapid and long run-out landslides. It introduces an attempt of ICT-based landslide micro-topography mapping using Google Earth. Finally, it also aims to provide new participatory work and learning for creating better and reliable hazard mapping.
This publication, the first of South Asia Department’s South-South learning series, aims to showcase lessons, replicable practices, and other insights which development practitioners can learn from, and apply in, the context of their respective countries. Projects discussed here represent various sectors such as energy, urban development, transport, information and communications technology (ICT), irrigation, and disaster risk reduction.
This report examines four different issue areas to analyze how social media is used in the context of risk and crisis communication. These areas include: public safety and preparedness; emergency warnings, alerts and requests for assistance; recovery efforts; and, finally, monitoring and situational awareness. In the context of each of these areas, it highlights the key literature and real-life examples to explore the risks vs. opportunities in the utility of social media. These four areas capture the role of engagement and strategy in both the risk and crisis space.
Performance Evaluation of Multi-Hop Communication Based on a Mobile Multi-Robot System in a Subterranean Laneway
For disaster exploration and surveillance application, this paper aims to present a novel application of a multi-robot agent based on WSN and to evaluate multi-hop communications supported by robotics used in subterranean tunnel. The paper proposes a Primary-Scout Multi-Robot System (PSMRS) and reports on the implementation of a chain topology in a subterranean environment using a trimmed ZigBee2006 protocol stack to build the multi-hop communication network.
In this paper, interest is in the rapid detection of disaster events such as tsunami, tornadoes, forest fires, and earthquakes. The detection system of disaster events is described and the way to detect a target event from Twitter data is also shown in this paper. The research examines three disasters during the same time period and compares Twitter activity and Internet news on Google. A significant result from this research is that emergency detection could begin using the microblogging service.