This handbook is part of a portfolio of tools available to help mobile network operators and other members of the mobile ecosystem to improve their services for women in low- and middle-income countries. The handbook is an initiative of the GSMA mWomen Global Development Alliance, a program in partnership with USAID, AusAID, GSMA and Visa. GDA partner AusAID have supported the creation of this tool. It is one of a number of tools available to promote greater mobile access and usage by women in the developing world, including the Framework for Designing the mWomen Business Case. The full suite of GSMA mWomen knowledge products and additional insights and materials is available at www.mWomen.org. The handbook has been developed by Altai Consulting, which provides consulting and research services to private companies and public institutions in emerging markets. Altai advises telecom operators, media ventures, investors, governments and stakeholders in 30+ countries in Southern Europe, Africa, Middle East & Central Asia region.