This page contains resources on professional development, skills development, human resource development and institutional capacity building in the knowledge economy.
APCICT convened its Fifth Partners Meeting of the “Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders” in Bali, Indonesia on 27-29 November 2013
On Nov. 27th, representatives from 32 member States across Asia-Pacific gathered in Bali, Indonesia for a three-day meeting aimed at enhancing training in information and communication technologies for Development (ICTD) capacity-building for governments in the region.
Information and Communication Technologies for Reconstruction and Development: Afghanistan Challenges and Opportunities
The intent of this report is to raise awareness of the importance of the role of ICT in failed state intervention and follow-on reconstruction and development. Afghanistan is used as a case study to examine and highlight, by example, successes and some of the challenges encountered in trying to rebuild a war-torn country’s telecommunications and IT infrastructure and to use it to enable other sector reconstruction and development.
This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan.
This Report present the World Bank's ICT Strategy for the period 2012-2015. The Strategy for 2012-2015 will emphasize the transformative potential of information and communication technologies while focusing on innovation and infrastructure. The new ICT strategy will be comprised by three pillars. It will promote ICTs to transform services for greater development impact—strengthening accountability and governance, improving public services, and enabling more inclusive private delivery of services (Transform pillar). It will advance ICTs to improve competitiveness and accelerate innovation across the economy and target skills development for ICT-related jobs (a large portion known to be going to women) to improve productivity (Innovate pillar). And it will scale up its support for policy reforms and private and public-private ventures to catalyze investment in broadband infrastructure and expand access to broadband services, including for women (Connect pillar).
From activists in Egypt to coffee farmers in Colombia, the Internet has transformed the lives of billions of people. It functions as a gateway to ideas, resources, and opportunities that never could have been realized before. All around the world, the Internet is helping people to imagine new possibilities—and then, to make them happen. But women and girls are being left behind. On average across the developing world, nearly 25 percent fewer women than men have access to the Internet, and the gender gap soars to nearly 45 percent in regions like sub-Saharan Africa. Even in rapidly growing economies the gap is enormous. Nearly 35 percent fewer women than men in South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa have Internet access, and nearly 30 percent in parts of Europe and across Central Asia. In most higher-income countries, women’s Internet access only minimally lags that of men’s. Bridging the Internet gender gap represents an opportunity of immense proportions. Internet access is fast becoming an indispensable entrée to a hyper-connected world. Without access to the Internet, women lack access to its tools, resources and opportunities. The findings from this study demonstrate that Internet access and usage boost women’s income and income potential, increase women’s sense of empowerment and increase women’s sense of equity.
The Asian Development Bank has been part of searching for better development solutions and innovative approaches using ICT and experiencing the challenges of realities in implementation.This paper selectively takes stock of ADB initiatives across sectors, countries, and regions to share their experiences.
Right to Education is the primary right of every citizen of India. According to the Article 45 of Indian Constitution the basic elementary education must be provided to all the children up to the age of fourteen years. Even after 64 years of independence some States in India are still struggling to achieve Universal enrolment, retention and quality education. Schools in rural areas are promoted to raise the level of education and literacy in rural India. The main aim of running these types of schools in India is to increase the rate of literacy in rural areas. More than 40 percent of India’s population is illiterate and cannot read or write. Schools in rural areas are inadequate and often equivalent to being non-existent. Thus, government’s initiatives to set up schools in rural areas came into picture. According to Just Indian Schools the conditions of rural education in India, is improving steadily. The fee structure in these schools is very low so that every child can study and afford it.
This study explores the barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies for teaching and learning in Jordan as seen by the different involve d stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. The paper investigates these barriers through an interpretative case study which is the Jordanian Education Initiative (JEI) and uses the technology-to-performance chain model (TPC) as a conceptual research framework. Fifteen barriers were identified based on this qualitative research; twelve of them can be directly attributed to utilization factors proposed by the TPC model which were also viewed as barrier factors (expected consequences and affect toward use, habit, social norms, and facilitating condition); significant number of identified barriers can be related to “facilitating conditions” which puts more responsibility on the ministry of education to offer more resources and opportunities to facilitate the process of integrating technology into education in Jordan . Despite the notion that these barriers will be always present, the paper calls for more institutional support for the JEI and more technical training for the teachers.
The objective of this analytical report is to support the strategic direction, focus, and action plan in governance reform by implementing ICT within the urban development framework of the Africa Region. With a focus on replicating successful ICT-Urban Governance strategies in Africa, this report aims to (i) synthesize the role currently played by ICT towards improved governance, management and accountability of urban service providers in Africa as well as other Regions, (ii) explore current ICT initiatives that are relevant to the World Bank’s thematic concerns, (iii) reconcile existing deficiencies/barriers towards potential for replication, and (iv) develop a roadmap to render easy strategy implementation by project teams. Section I outlines evolving trends in urban governance and presents ICT as a potential tool in the environment of modern governance. Section II discusses the role of ICT in some of the Bank’s core areas of urban focus. An analysis of fundamental ICT methodologies employed is discussed in Section III. Section IV, in conclusion, suggests an action-plan for enhancing ICT initiatives as a component of the Bank’s lending activities.
This publication, the first of South Asia Department’s South-South learning series, aims to showcase lessons, replicable practices, and other insights which development practitioners can learn from, and apply in, the context of their respective countries. Projects discussed here represent various sectors such as energy, urban development, transport, information and communications technology (ICT), irrigation, and disaster risk reduction. The selection of the projects showcased in this publication was based on their implementation or completion within the last ten years, an overall rating of either Highly Satisfactory or Satisfactory in their project completion reports, representation of all developing member countries in South Asia, representation of major sectors of ADB operations in South Asia, and the achievement of exemplary and significant results vis-à-vis their respective project components as documented in the project completion reports.
The current e-governance scenario in the healthcare sector in India is disappointing. Public health services run by the government are overburdened and collapsing. Large geographical size, increased population density, lack of transport, inaccessibility, illiteracy, poverty, poor nutritional status, diversity in food habit and life style are various impediments. Government priorities for providing food, safe water and school education are yet to be fulfilled. At this stage low budget for health, lack of funds and coordination have triggered down trend in health services. As medical science is fast developing and information resource is pouring in, there is urgent need for dissemination knowledge by interlinking primary, secondary and tertiary level health centres by ICT applications. This paper reviews ICT applications at National Level and also in Orissa province. It presents facts on tele-medicine, tele-referal services and health information dissemination by Video conferencing, Gramsat and e-Grama tools used in Orissa. The prospects and constraints of ICT implementation for Governance of healthcare is addressed.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have become common place entities in all aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavor within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields. Education is a very socially oriented activity and quality education has increased. The use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning. India has made impressive strides in the application of ICT in recent years and this is reflected in its vibrant and fast growing economy. Here, we will find out the awareness about the ICT among people and the impact of IT on students. Highlight the factors prevents reaping the benefits of ICTs and technological innovations to access them. Also identifies the bottlenecks in system.
Despite the political turmoil that had swept up the region over the past two years, the Arab world continued to make significant progress in the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in 2011, taking big strides towards enhancing ICT infrastructure and performance. Driven by the GCC's remarkable mobile penetration figures, mobile phone subscriptions in the Arab world nearly matched the region's population – to reach 346 million as of end 2011. The Internet sector in the Arab region also continued to make notable progress, as Internet users totaled almost 96 million by of end 2011. This report presents the current status of ICT use and penetration in the Arab World. It also discusses Arab social networks and their adoption and Arabic digital content. This is of particular interest as the Arab world was slow in its adoption of social networking, but the rise of political activism and the subsequent uprisings witnessed in several countries in the region prompted the explosion of sites such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube on the Arab scene.
As the impacts of climate change intensify, developing countries must implement innovative strategies to adapt to changing climatic conditions and uncertainty. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can play a key role in strengthening adaptive capacity. This Brief identifies ICTs' contribution to national adaptation strategies and to specific sectoral adaptations in developing countries. It argues that ICTs provide generic support to the process of information gathering, decision-making, implementation and evaluation for national level adaptation. Specific ICT applications enable delivery of particular adaptational actions for the vulnerabilities that climate change affects including poverty, water, agriculture and food security, human health, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and disaster management among others. The Brief concludes by identifying guiding principles for use of ICTs in adaptation processes, suggesting that their role goes well beyond the use of climate specific applications. The informational, productive and transformational potential of ICT tools must be harnessed and designed with a holistic, integrated view of adaptation; one that looks at the complete 'infosystem' of mobile phones, Internet applications, telecentres and mass media to foster adaptation at the national, sectoral and community levels.
As a major development partner in the field of ICT for development, the WBG has long recognized the critical role of ICT in catalyzing inclusive economic growth as well as in promoting human and social development. The WBG approaches ICT both as a sector in itself (ICT connectivity, infrastructure, and ICT industries) and as an enabler of transformation across sectors. The World Bank’s ICT Sector Unit is anchored in the Sustainable Development Network (SDN) and leads work related to ICT as a sector, at the operational (policy support and lending), analytical, capacity building, and knowledge-sharing levels. The World Bank also hosts infoDev, a multi-donor partnership program under the Finance and Private Sector Development Network (FPD) which mainly focuses on promoting technology innovation (including “clean technology”) at the small and medium enterprise level. Support to ICT as an enabler of transformation across sectors is mainly carried out through ICT components in projects of different sectors.
The introduction of ICT in the last two decades or so in India has brought about enormous changes in every sphere of life and especially in the field of education. This new digital technology has become inevitable and essential and it promises revolutionary benefits for the present and future. But along the way it also poses certain challenges which need to be addressed holistically in effective ways in order to keep pace with the rest of the world and ensure a robust system. This paper takes an overview of the present state of ICT in India and discusses the core issues relating to planning and implementation.
Disaster Management and Community Warning (CW) Systems Inter-Organisational Collaboration and ICT Innovation
This paper outlines research conducted into CW systems in New South Wales (NSW) state government Emergency Service Agencies. This research highlights a unified collaborative approach to the assessment, development, deployment and use of Community Warning systems that is based on crisis management theory. This approach could be utilised by governments at federal, state and local levels for cross border and jurisdictional management of ESA informational, ICT and process resources. Such an approach would assist government in better targeting expenditure on CW systems and using ICT in an innovative manner. Results also highlight that when developing and deploying CW systems, there should be careful consideration of a number of background contextual issues such as: stakeholder involvement, incident complexity; utilisation of multi-ICT delivery platforms for economies of scale; integration of multi-ESA operational, community, communication and ICT requirements for shared direction; and development of an ICT architecture for building learning capabilities and skills of stakeholders.
Social networking (SN) have provided an opportunity to facilitate strategic knowledge sharing across organizations and government agencies. The Human Capital Institute (HCI) and Saba partnered to better understand the use and potential of SN tools in the government workplace. The goal was to learn what SN tools are being used in government today, the effectiveness of SN for doing government work, future expectations and barriers for its use, and how agency type affects the use and opinions of SN. To discover the answers, a Web-based survey was completed by 607 respondents from federal, state and county/municipal government agencies.
ICT for Development: sustainable technology-supported participatory development for poverty alleviation in the context of digital divides
This paper will review recent literature and consider elements and boundary concepts that constitute the ICT4D field. The paper's goal is to review boundary objects (frameworks and participation processes) that have so far been created to aid ICT4D understanding and decision-making, and seek to synthesise these into a framework that goes at least some way to addressing the concerns about this issue.
This report is a significant contribution to the discussion of the roles and responsibilities of chief information security officers (CISOs) in state governments across the United States. It identifies both strategies and activities used by successful state CISOs, and thereby provides a good roadmap to success for all state CISOs. The report cites the Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center (MS-ISAC), which has been championed since its inception by the New York state chief cybersecurity officer as one key cybersecurity collaboration success. The MS-ISAC initiative has yielded measurable results and provided a means of consistent communication across sectors in society. The report also emphasizes that while a technical education remains important for CISOs, state cybersecurity officials need to be proficient in nontechnical skills as well, including collaboration, communication, managerial, organizational, policy alignment, and political skills. Finally, the report emphasizes the need for state cybersecurity officials to devote increased attention to data management as the defined system/network perimeter has dissolved and the future success of cybersecurity relies on the CISOs, chief information officers, data owners, records managers and archivists to jointly focus on data management to achieve effective business processes.
Few operational areas of every corporation present as much inherent risk or prove as difficult to govern as Information Technology ("IT"). One of the reasons for lack of governance has been the claim of not having sufficient knowledge to do so. However, recent years have brought a growing realization that not knowing is not an excuse. As more responsibility is placed on boards to oversee all areas of risk that their companies face, there is a critical need to provide effective governance over information technology, along with the necessary leadership from the top, organizational structures, and processes that ensure that IT efficiently sustains and extends the corporate strategies and objectives. This article provides an overview of some of the main considerations relative to every director's duty to govern IT risk. In particular, it addresses director's roles in the risk of oversight of the corporations they serve, their role in governance of IT, their role in mitigating IT risks, and ways in which that risk can be transferred to or shared with others. A discussion of these topics will hopefully foster a deeper and productive discussion within boardrooms.
This project utilized emerging technologies such as mobile broadband videoconferencing along with web-based software and materials (http://www.cyscience.com.au) to enhance the provision of science and mathematics in rural and remote schools in Northern Queensland. The paper tracks the role of technology in the development and implementation of the CY Science project. It will explore how technology enabled a successful classroom project to evolve into a regional program and beyond. It will look at technology as a creative tool for teachers as well as its benefits and shortcomings as a means of teacher professional development. The project involved the distribution of 202 inquiry based science kits and utilized different methods of accompanying professional development to over 60 schools, primarily across northern Australia. The findings of the SiMERR National Survey into Science, Maths and ICT education in rural and regional Australia concluded that “science teachers in provincial and remote areas indicated a significantly higher unmet need for a broad range of professional development activities than did those in provincial cities or metropolitan areas”. This study investigates and reports on the existing research literature, the perceived benefits of the project to teachers’ satisfaction with professional development and tracks the changes to classroom practice that teachers and key stakeholders attribute to participation in the project.
This paper presents an approach to understanding information and communication technology-for-development (ICT4D) interventions based around informal learning, where the ongoing process of using ICTs – rather than informational products – is seen as the principal development driver. A conceptual model of informal learning in ICT4D is constructed. This model moves beyond the treatment of informal learning as a single unproblematic concept, to illustrate that there is a landscape of contrasting modes of informal learning and subsequent development outcomes that can occur within the processes of ICT4D projects. This model is used to provide guidelines that will help practitioners to understand ICT process within their projects and how they might 'design' projects around informal learning; through linking actions and ICT use to desired development outcomes. This study is supported by a review of the literature; in particular using case studies from India and Brazil to illustrate how informal learning can become the principal focus of an intervention, and potentially provide more appropriate ways to understand empowerment, social change and participatory production within ICT4D.
Potential of teaching and learning supported by ICT for the acquisition of deep conceptual knowledge and the development of wisdom
In this study, the potential of different technology‑supported learning environments for facilitating the development of deep conceptual knowledge and wisdom is discussed. The analysis shows that there are remarkable differences in the aims of distinct technology‑based learning environments. Some are focused on the rapid learning of facts and automatization of simple skills, whereas others are deliberately meant for supporting deep learning of complex concepts and knowledge structures. Even though wisdom development is not mentioned as an aim, the most advanced uses of technology in learning environments seem to include individual and social activities that are very similar to those emphasized in theories of wisdom.
Towards a conceptual framework for ICT for Development: lessons learned from the cube framework used in Latin America
The ICT for Development community is long searching for comprehensive and adequate conceptual frameworks. In 2003, United Nations Regional Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean proposed a three-dimensional conceptual framework that models the transition toward so-called Information Societies as interplay between technology, policy and social change. This model has been adopted throughout the region as a rough guidance for outlining international Action Plans, as an organizational tool to identify actors and priorities for national strategies, as well as a reference a tool to organize scholarly research. This article reviews some of the diverse applications the model has found during recent years and shows how it can be used. Shortcomings and lessons learned are discussed. The remaining challenge points back to the academic community, in search for ever more coherent and useful models that assist in designing meaningful and effective ICT for development strategies.
The present study is the First Draft of the Cambodia Country Report, prepared by Mr. Vat Chun of Cambodia and David N. Townsend (together, the ―Authors‖) as a deliverable for the Rural ICT Policy Advocacy, Knowledge Sharing and Capacity Building Project (the ―Project‖). This First Draft Report presents the specific experience with respect to rural ICT policies and experiences in Cambodia. The Report is based on extensive primary and secondary data collected directly by the Authors in relation to Cambodia through broad research, consultations, and communications with numerous officials, stakeholders, community officials, and end users of rural ICTs in Cambodia.
ICT has been recognized as a powerful tool for a country’s development. The focus of the study is to identify the current level of ICT adoption in the rural areas, the challenges the local agencies faced in delivering public services, and to recommend next course of action to improve the adoption of ICT. Twenty-two villages were involved in the study with total of 922 respondents. Fieldworks were carried out involving questionnaires and interviews. The findings show that ICT adoption in the rural communities is still very minimal and at its early stage. The use of computer and Internet is quite low, and their awareness on public online applications is very minimal. Among the challenges faced by the local government agencies are: (i) limited manpower to support the operation, (ii) problems when dealing with customers, (iii) lack of cooperation from the community, and (iv) limited resources. They are also instances where the agencies face with infrastructural problems such as interruption of network services. To enhance ICT adoption in rural areas and to increase the public services delivery, some recommendations are put forth as strategies to be carried out by the state government.
21 st century is the century of Hi-Tech. Recently Hi- Tech comprises IT, ICT, BT and Nano-Technology. Today ICT (Information Communication Technology) is a unique technology which is used universally in all span of life. ICT plays a predominant role in the creation and development of knowledge. The ICT revolution has changed the learning process of childhood up to the real world. E-learning is a combination of learning services and technology to provide high values. Internet plays a vital role in e-learning. Elearning is attaining significance in the world of internet. Due to the advantages of in internet, e-learning reached at any time and any where. To meet the demands of our global economy, there must be corresponding adoptions of e-learning in child education to develop 21st century skills. Computers are reshaping children’s lives, at home and at school in profound and unexpected ways. In this paper, we have discussed problems, considerations, issues and approaches to e-learning in India with giving stress on important features of e-learning and benefit of elearning for rural child development. The paper also highlights elearning’s applicability and acceptance in developing country like India. Digital learning in India is limited one but implementation and planning for e-learning and development of ICT is important. E-learning technologies have great potential to spread learning. However, the benefits of these technologies have to reach the rural masses of India; otherwise it will be one of the causes of the Digital Divide.
Recent research has demonstrated a significant disadvantage for rural teachers in a variety of aspects of ICT use. This context provides a backdrop for two professional learning programs designed to support ICT-based pedagogies in teaching science in Victorian rural primary and secondary schools. In both programs the school-based workshops initiated a community of learners supported with online web-presence. One program used an intensive five-day workshop focused on developing teachers’ knowledge, pedagogical expertise and leadership skills in embedding ICT into classroom practice. The second program provided a one-day workshop focused on integrating ICT skills in teaching science. Factors that affected the uptake of ICT included the considerable diversity in ICT availability and use, teacher competence, lack of support in schools, and online support. To redress rural disadvantage in ICT use, school commitment and focused leadership were identified as central to programs that supported and developed teacher skills and pedagogies over time.
For at least the past decade, political leaders and policy makers have stressed how important it is for Africa to harness technology, leapfrog development, and take part in the global knowledge economy. In numerous initiatives aimed at realizing these goals, education is a primary target, viewed as a mechanism through which information and communication technologies (ICT) can empower societies to develop technologically literate workforces. Unfortunately, there is a considerable gap between policy rhetoric and effective project implementation. Even as ICT-in-education projects increase rapidly in number and scope across the continent, many still lack necessary pre-project assessments, enumerated goals for outcomes, or understanding of what technology can and cannot do. This article’s focus on policies, partnerships, and pragmatism is informed by a case study of a multi-partnered ICT-in-education project in rural Uganda that set pragmatic technology-use goals, a project for which governmental policy provided an important initial incentive, and which was subsequently revised to address actual student needs for acquiring technology skills. The case offers important lessons to inform both similar projects and government- led policy initiatives in the future.
The Mongolian National Academy of Governance holds workshop on e-Governance in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Sri Lanka becomes the 27th Country to launch the ‘Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders’ in Asia-Pacific
APCICT launches the 'Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders' in Sri Lanka, and provides training on e-Government Applications(Module 3), and Information Security and Privacy Protection(Module 6) to 40 mid-level government offcials and academics.
ICTs will form an essential part in the development of capacity necessary to adapt to the challenges posed by climate change, and to cope with the associated short-term shocks and long-term trends.
APCICT and ICTPA reaffirm ICT capacity building partnership in Mongolia
Timor-Leste and UN Wrap Up Second ICT Training Workshop and Discuss Future Capacity Building Initiatives
The United Nations Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development, a regional institute of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-APCICT/ESCAP), and Timor Leste’s Directorate National for Information and Communication Technology (DNICT), of the Ministry of Infrastructure, today concluded the second National Workshop of the “Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders” (Academy) in Dili, Timor-Leste.
The United Nations Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development, a regional institute of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-APCICT/ESCAP), has collaborated with the Myanmar government to launch the Training for ICT Capacity Building in Myanmar according to APCICT’s flagship programme of “Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders” (Academy) at the Central Institute of Civil Service (Upper Myanmar) in Pyin Oo Lwin.
The Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development, a regional institute of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-APCICT/ESCAP), has collaborated with the Cambodian government to launch the “Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders” (Academy) in Phnom Penh today.
Cambodian delegation meets with ACPICT leadership to strengthen partnership and prepare for upcoming launch of the “Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders" in Cambodia.
This country paper was prepared for the Third Session of the Governing Council of APCICT. It gives an overview of the initiatives undertaken in the area of ICT Human Capacity Building under the mandates of WSIS and MDGs, and provides specific needs and recommendations for this area in Thailand.
This country paper was prepared for the Third Session of the Governing Council of APCICT. It gives an overview of the initiatives undertaken in the area of ICT Human Capacity Building under the mandates of WSIS and MDGs, and provides specific needs and recommendations for this area in Indonesia.
This country paper was prepared for the Third Session of the Governing Council of APCICT. It gives an overview of the initiatives undertaken in the area of ICT Human Capacity Building under the mandates of WSIS and MDGs, and provides specific needs and recommendations for this area in India.
This country paper was prepared for the Third Session of the Governing Council of APCICT. It gives an overview of the initiatives undertaken in the area of ICT Human Capacity Building under the mandates of WSIS and MDGs, and provides specific needs and recommendations for this area in Bangladesh.
Building Local Capacity for ICT Policy and Regulation: A Needs Assessment and Gap Analysis for Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific - Supply Analysis
This summary report provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of, and need for, capacity building programmes for ICT policy and regulation in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. For each region, it gives a systematic survey of the current supply of ICT policy and regulatory capacity building efforts. This study focuses on four related aspects of ICT policy and regulatory capacity building: training, technical assistance, research and advocacy.
The objective of Bhutan ICT HRD Master Plan and Strategies (BIHMPS) is to enable Bhutan to become a knowledge-based information society. The master plan, intended to be relevant for a period of five years, has been developed using a consultative approach with stakeholders taking into account the specific context and needs of the country. This master plan document is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 presents a brief background on Bhutan. Chapter 2 focuses on the key developments and initiatives in the field of ICT in Bhutan. Chapter 3 examines the HRD aspects for ICT in Bhutan including shortage of ICT professionals, its access to a large pool of ICT professionals and underutilization of the existing ICT professionals. The components of the master plan are presented in chapter 4. Chapter 5 presents the operational strategies based on the plans developed in the previous chapter.
Major part of Pakistan is comprised of underdeveloped rural areas with low level of educational system. This has in turn become a main hurdle to gain, accept and to implement the new technologies in the agriculture sector as well as other rural sectors. This article proposes an ICT-Training Centre consisting of wireless networked Rural Kiosk Machines placed at every village, which will be updated through a central place of information - the ICT-Rural Development Department.
APDIP e-Note 17 - ICT Skill Development in the Asia-Pacific Region - Part two: Bridging the gap between demand and supply
This APDIP e-Note is the second in the series on information and communications technology (ICT) skill development in the Asia-Pacific region. While the first part examined the gaps between demand and supply of ICT skills, this APDIP e-Note focuses on what could be done to bridge the identified gaps at national and regional levels.
The Least Developed Countries Report, 2007: Knowledge, Technological Learning and Innovation for Development
This report focus on five issues: (1) the extent to which the development of technological capabilities is occurring in LDCs through international market linkages; (2) the way in which science, technology and innovation (STI) issues are currently treated within LDCs, particularly in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers; (3) current controversies about how stringent intellectual property right regimes affect technological development processes in LDCs and policy options for improving their learning environment; (4) the extent of loss of skilled human resources through emigration and policy options for dealing with that issue; and (5) how ODA is supporting technological learning and innovation in the LDCs and ways to improve it.
In an effort to measure and bridge the digital divide, several different types of indicators have been developed to measure the readiness of a country to adopt information and communication technology (ICT). Many of these indicators measure the extent to which the technology has been adopted within the target population. While some indicators recognize the importance of computer skills and e-literacy, there has been minimal effort to develop a multi-factor set of indicators to measure ICT human resource capacity. In this paper, the authors draw upon prior work on ICT indicators to develop eight sets of ICT human resource capacity indicators, including human capacity of ICT specialists, advanced users, basic users, ICT enabling managers, ICT equipped educators, thought leaders, policy makers, and infrastructure builders.
APDIP e-Note 13 - ICT Skill Development in the Asia-Pacific Region - Part one: the gap between demand and supply
The Asia-Pacific region are major producers and users of information and communication technologies (ICTs). There are, however, significant gap between the demand and supply of ICT professionals. As a first in the series of two complementing APDIP e-Notes, this APDIP e-Note discusses the dynamics creating the demand/supply imbalance. At a strategic level, it explores ways to achieve a balance and make recommendations on actions that policy makers can take to increase the existing ICT skill supply.
ICT Human Resource Development in Asia and the Pacific: Current Status, Emerging Trends, Policies and Strategies
ICT is a skill intensive industry. Human resources related to ICT need close monitoring and development if the region has to maintain and accelerate the current momentum of ICT led economic development and social transformation. The present paper is based on the research and analysis of the status of and trends in ICT sector in the region and in the region’s present and potential international markets; and to analyze the implications of these trends on the ICT human resource development.
The paper is organized in five parts. First, the paper provides an overview of the literature on the knowledge economy, skill, education and training issues. Secondly, it reviews the role of ICTs for vocational skill development and employability. Thirdly, it discusses the issues surrounding the development of the digital divide. Fourthly, it underlines types and the importance of developing ICT initiatives targeting young people, and reviews some of the successful policy implementations on ICT-based initiatives from both developed and developing countries that offer opportunities to young people for learning, skill development and employment. The paper concludes with some recommendations. This paper is based on experiences from the Middle East and North Africa region.
Using ICT in Capacity Building for Poverty Reduction in Asia: Lessons Learned from the Microfinance Training of Trainers Course
This paper identifies key lessons learned in using ICT for capacity building based on two training of trainers courses organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute and their partners on Microfinance. The paper concludes that distance learning is an appropriate method for capacity building, particularly in areas underserved by conventional education systems. Following an introduction, Section II of the paper gives a brief overview of concepts related to distance learning, discusses the prospects and challenges, and highlights the key elements for a successful distance learning activity in developing countries. Section III gives an overview of the courses, while Section IV presents profile of participants of the second course. The main findings of the course evaluation are presented in Section IV.
This is an ADBI-produced CD-ROM that examines the changes in human resources development policy in the Republic of Korea. This presentation was originally presented by Moon Hee Kim from the Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development, Republic of Korea, at the Workforce Development for Knowledge Economy Workshop on 7-13 September 2005 in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The objective of the workshop was to review major technological innovations, their impact on the international labour force and the skills mix required by knowledge workers.
Strengthening Institutional Capacity to Promote Investment and Transfer of Technology with Special Emphasis on Information and Communication Technology
This publication provides information on the importance of intellectual property rights and the implication for investment in and development of information and communication technology.
This paper addresses the issues on youth employment in Iran by providing statistics and pointing out policies and action plans. It also includes the national action plan on human resource development and youth employment based on ICTs.
Over the past decade, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has been recognized as a potential enabler for national economic and social development and for strengthening competitiveness for Thailand. The government, then, started the initiative in 1992 to set up the National IT Committee, or NITC, which is a high-level policy body chaired by the Prime Minister, which has been resulting some ICT policies. This resource provides ICT Human Resource Development within those policies context.
This report explores the challenges to education and training systems that the knowledge economy presents. It outlines policy options for addressing these challenges and developing viable systems of lifelong learning in developing countries and countries with transition economies. It encourages countries to look beyond traditional approaches to education and training and to engage in a policy dialogue on the pedagogical and economic consequence of lifelong learning.
The study begins by exploring the terms IT and ICT. This is followed by a human resources approach to ICT, based on the assumption that a programme for ICT education should be structured according to a desired level of ICT proficiency. Swedish government policies that have created the conditions for Sweden’s competency in the ICT sector are reviewed, followed by a thorough analysis of education and training in Sweden. The sections on Sri Lanka and Tanzania follow a similar logic though they are more geared to concrete policy recommendations appearing at the end of those chapters.
Indonesia has some basic policies regarding the Information Technology. This article describes Indonesian national IT Policy and the IT trends. It also looks at human resources development as one important field in the development of the IT industry in Indonesia and the enhancement of its international competitiveness.
Building Institutional Capacity in Asia - Alleviating the Digital Divide: Policy Recommendations for Malaysia, Thailand, The Philppines, Vietnam (Executive Summary)
This report examines the evolving Asian ICT environment using a comparative framework. It undertakes an audit of the ICT initiatives in Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. Data collection involved in this report has been supplemented by interviews with senior policy leaders and executives from key government and research agencies.
This paper describes what Papua New Guinea has done to invest in infrastructure and its ICT human resources.
This paper seeks to examine more closely the roles that young professionals play in knowledge networks; determine what their contributions are; determine what they gain from the network experience; uncover obstacles to their work; and make recommendations to strengthen their participation.
The paper explores ways to improve information capacity building activities in developing countries. Focusing on the capacity building process, it presents some principles and key questions for actors in this area. The paper argues that capacity ‘building’ efforts should be organized around partnerships where mutually beneficial relationships are fostered and capacities are mobilized and shared. It offers a set of principles for such partnerships such as forge new relationships, foster ownership, focus on processes, give priority to local capacities, use open standards, and prepare an exit strategy. The paper advocates capacity sharing for capacity builders in the information sector to bring together the multiple intitiatives in this field.